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 Teema pealkiri: Asi Jaapanis läheb käest ära
PostitusPostitatud: 14 Mär, 2011 20:27 
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* Fuel rods appear to be melting inside three over-heating reactors
* Experts class development as 'partial meltdown'
* Molten fuel could burn through reactor safety shields
* Earlier blast at Fukushima nuclear plant felt 25 miles away
* Eleven workers injured after hydrogen ignited
* 180,000 people have been evacuated from the area
* Engineers desperately trying to cool reactors with sea water
* Up to 160 people so far exposed to radiation


The Japanese nuclear reactor hit by the tsunami went into 'meltdown' today, as officials admitted that fuel rods appear to be melting inside three damaged reactors.

That means there is a risk that molten nuclear fuel can melt through the reactor's safety barriers and cause a serious radiation leak.

There have already been explosions inside two over-heating reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant, and the fuel rods inside a third were partially exposed as engineers desperately fight to keep them under control after the tsunami knocked out emergency cooling systems.

Japanese chief cabinet secretary Yukio Edano said it was 'highly likely' that the fuel rods inside all three stricken reactors are melting.

Some experts class that a partial meltdown of the reactor, but others would only use that term for when molten nuclear fuel melts through a reactor's inner chamber - but not through the outer containment shell.

As fuel rods melt, they form an extremely hot molten pool at the bottom of the reactor that can melt through even the toughest of containment barriers.

Japan is fighting to avoid a nuclear catastrophe after the tsunami. There was a hydrogen explosion at the reactor in Unit Three of the power station earlier today, in which eleven workers were hurt by the blast that was felt 25 miles away.
'Meltdown': The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant moments after it was rocked by a second explosion today. Officials later admitted that fuel rods are 'highly likely' to be melting in three damaged reactors

'Meltdown': The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant moments after it was rocked by a second explosion today. Officials later admitted that fuel rods are 'highly likely' to be melting in three damaged reactors
Fireball: A build-up of hydrogen in Unit Three of Fukushima ignites in a ball of fire that can be seen for miles

Fireball: A build-up of hydrogen in Unit Three of Fukushima ignites in a ball of fire that can be seen for miles

Smoke: An enormous cloud rises from the site, dwarfing the plant and raising fears of radiation problems

Smoke: An enormous cloud rises from the site, dwarfing the plant and raising fears of radiation problems

Extensive damage: Experts are now debating whether a radiation cloud could reach the West Coast

Extensive damage: Experts are now debating whether a radiation cloud could reach the West Coast
WHAT HAPPENS IN A NUCLEAR MELTDOWN ?

The Japanese reactors work by harnessing the energy of thousands of nuclear fuel rods, that are normally kept submerged in water to keep them cool.

But if the cooling system fails, the heat generated by the nuclear reaction increases uncontrollably.

If that continues for long enough, the nuclear fuel can melt, forming molten pools on the floor of the reactor at thousands of degrees celcius.

This is a meltdown.

These pools of molten fuel can melt through the reactor safety barriers - there is an inner and outer shield.

The worst case scenario is that the protective shield around the reactors is melted away, resulting in a serious leak of radioactive material.

The reactor at Unit One of Fukushima exploded on Saturday, blowing several walls away but engineers said the core was still contained. The fuel rods in the reactor in Unit Two of the plant were partially exposed from their coolant today - which also increases the risk of meltdown.

Engineers have been fighting to keep the reactors under control after the tsunami knocked out emergency coolant systems on Friday.

Earlier engineers were frantically trying to cool radioactive materials at all the reactors with seawater but had halted the process, which resulted in a rise in radiation levels and pressure.

Plant managers knew an explosion was a possibility as they struggled to reduce pressure inside the reactor containment vessel in Unit Three, but apparently felt they had no choice if they wanted to avoid a complete meltdown.

In the end, the hydrogen in the released steam mixed with oxygen in the atmosphere and set off the blast, which was felt 25 miles away.

The plant's operator Tokyo Electric Company said radiation levels at the reactor were still within legal limits.

Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said the Unit Three reactor's inner containment vessel holding nuclear rods is intact, allaying some fears of the risk to the environment and public.

The government had warned that a further explosion was possible because of the build-up of hydrogen in the building housing the reactor.

More than 180,000 people have been evacuated from the area.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said Japanese authorities reported that radioactivity levels 'at the site boundary' of another nuclear power plant at Onagawa had returned to normal.

Earlier a state of emergency had been declared after the high levels of radiation were detected at the nuclear power complex.
Enlarge graphic

Consequences of meltdown: this graphic shows how a full-scale meltdown could affect the United States
U.S. NAVY FLEES RADIOACTIVE PLUME FROM REACTOR BLAST

The Unites States Navy has moved its Seventh Fleet away from an earthquake-stricken Japanese nuclear power plant after detecting raised radiation levels.

The fleet said today that the radiation was from a plume of smoke and steam released from the crippled Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, which has been hit by two explosions since Friday's devastating earthquake and tsunami.

The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan, pictured, was about 100miles (160km) offshore when its instruments detected the radiation.

But the fleet said the dose of radiation was about the same as one month's normal exposure to natural background radiation in the environment.
The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan

Thousands of families have been evacuated and many more were yesterday being checked for radiation exposure as Japan began to take stock of what the prime minister labelled its ‘most severe crisis since the Second World War’ – when the U.S. dropped nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Tens of thousands are feared dead, with bodies being picked up from beaches along a 300-mile stretch of coastline.

Others are being gathered from the sea and thousands more are believed to lie buried deep in mud under the debris of homes and cars. At least 10,000 people – half the population of the port of Minami Sanriku – were unaccounted for and the town has been virtually wiped off the map.

Nearby Rikuzentakata was also swamped and destroyed by Friday’s tsunami, killing at least 400 people.

Hundreds of Britons – many of them English language teachers – are among the missing.

Some 100,000 troops and civil defence members, backed by ships and helicopters, yesterday began the mammoth task of clearing rubble and searching for survivors and bodies.

So many people died because when the nine-magnitude Pacific Ocean earthquake struck 80 miles off the coast of Sendai, warnings were issued that a tsunami would hit land in an hour.
Explosion: Smoke rising from the Fukushima number one nuclear plant after a blast in Unit One

Explosion: Smoke rising from the Fukushima number one nuclear plant after a blast in Unit One on Saturday
Enlarge Reaching out: A young woman who has been isolated at a makeshift facility to screen, cleanse and isolate people with high radiation levels, looks at her dog through a window in Nihonmatsu, northern Japan

Reaching out: A young woman who has been isolated at a makeshift facility to screen, cleanse and isolate people with high radiation levels, looks at her dog through a window in Nihonmatsu, northern Japan

But survivors said it struck in nine minutes.

There were warnings last night that strong aftershocks, with a magnitude of six or more, could be expected for at least another week – and Tokyo shuddered several times yesterday as a series of shocks struck the city.

But the gravest consequence of the earthquake and tsunami could yet be felt, as scientists frantically tried to control the threat of nuclear meltdown.

Men in white protective suits and masks swept Geiger counters over frightened survivors yesterday as nuclear experts around the world monitored the crippled and unstable Fukushima plant, 150 miles north of Tokyo.

Up to 200,000 people were evacuated from within a 12-mile radius of the plant, which remains the biggest threat.
Enlarge Three days of nuclear nightmare
Damaged: The roof of reactor number one at the Fukushima plant after an explosion that blew off the upper part of the structure

Damaged: The roof of reactor number one at the Fukushima plant after an explosion that blew off the upper part of the structure

Horrific memories: The towns destroyed by the tsunami look very similar to Hiroshima in 1945

Horrific memories: The towns destroyed by the tsunami look very similar to Hiroshima in 1945

Officials revealed that 22 people had already been recorded with radiation poisoning, and they said around 190 were in the plant’s vicinity when radioactive steam was deliberately leaked in an attempt to cool the reactors.

And the words designed to reassure the public that they were in no danger from any leaked radiation were at odds with those from the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power.

The company conceded that radiation levels around the complex had risen above the safety limit but tried to appease the public by stating that it did not mean an ‘immediate threat’ to human health.

It also emerged yesterday that the government ignored explicit warnings from a Japanese expert on nuclear power more than three years ago.
On the move: Police wearing protective clothing and respirators head towards the the nuclear plant in Minamisouma City, Fukushima Prefecture yesterday

On the move: Police wearing protective clothing and respirators head towards the the nuclear plant in Minamisouma City, Fukushima Prefecture yesterday
Sleeping: People who are evacuated from a nursing home which is located in evacuation area around the plant rest at a temporary shelter in Koriyama today

Sleeping: People who are evacuated from a nursing home which is located in evacuation area around the plant rest at a temporary shelter in Koriyama today
Map of Japan locating nuclear facilities and radius of a nuclear plant where a explosion occurred on Saturday

Professor Ishibashi Katsuhiko, of Kobe University, said the guidelines introduced to protect the nuclear plants were ‘seriously flawed’ and that the plants were vulnerable to major quakes.

‘Unless radical steps are taken now to reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to earthquakes, Japan could experience a true nuclear catastrophe in the near future,’ he warned in 2007.

Elsewhere, millions of people are without power and water, factories will remain closed for weeks and Tokyo has been warned there will probably have to be power cuts to conserve electricity.

At rescue centres in Sendai, where people prepared for a third night sleeping on the floor, notice boards are cluttered with the names of the missing.

Weeping survivors said they could only pray that poor communications had failed to put them in touch with their loved ones. One elderly woman reading through one of the lists suddenly exclaimed:’That’s me! They say I’m missing. Well, here I am. My sons must be worried sick about me. But I’m OK.’

Rail services to Sendai and beyond were postponed indefinitely and the only way anyone had any hope of reaching the stricken region was by air, flying to towns on the west coast and attempting to drive across the island. But police have blocked many roads, to keep them clear for rescue vehicles and ambulances.

From the air, rail carriages could be seen lying on their sides. Cars and houses were piled up like debris thrown on to a huge rubbish tip.

Scary scene: Police officers wearing respirators guide people evacuating the area around the plant

Scary scene: Police officers wearing respirators guide people evacuating the area around the plant

So how alarmed should we be over this crisis?

By MICHAEL HANLON

Enthusiasts for atomic power are today, inevitably, on the back foot. Those who argue that in the normal course of things nuclear energy is the safest and most reliable form of energy have to contend with a single word: ‘meltdown’.

This is a scenario that brings dread to the hearts of nuclear engineers – an uncontained chain reaction in a reactor core, a blob of molten radioactive metal burning its way out of the containment chamber and a massive release of radioactive fission products such as iodine-131 and strontium-90 into the environment.

It was a partial meltdown which led to the Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania in 1978, and a similar explosive breakdown that caused the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.

Both incidents brought strident calls to abandon nuclear power altogether – calls which are bound to intensify following the still-unfolding Japanese catastrophe.

On top of the worst earthquake in its history and a tsunami which may have killed tens of thousands, Japan – a nation which for obvious reasons after the events of 1945 has a love-hate relationship with nuclear power – is staring into the atomic abyss.

What actually caused the accident at Fukushima is still unclear but it seems that in simple terms, the power station was hit by a power cut.

First, seismic detectors at the plant, alerted by the earthquake, triggered an automatic shutdown – by inserting boron rods into the reactor cores, stopping the heat-producing fission reaction.

Normally, the reactor fuel would simply have cooled down safely over a matter of days. But then the tsunami swept through local power grids and back-up generators which provided the electricity for the reactor cooling pumps – possibly fracturing the water main into the plant as well.

Like a car engine with a leaking radiator, the heat started to build up to dangerous levels. Nuclear power stations are essentially huge kettles. You have a power source – the nuclear reactor itself – which gets hot; several hundred degrees in a controlled fission reaction.

The heat is produced by the fission – splitting – of atoms of radioactive materials, such as uranium.
Precaution: Officials in protective gear check today for signs of radiation on children who are from the evacuation area near the nuclear plant

Precaution: Officials in protective gear check today for signs of radiation on children who are from the evacuation area near the nuclear plant

This produces not only heat but radiation, and also the creation of radioactive by-products which themselves emit heat as they undergo radioactive decay.

This explains why, even if the primary nuclear reaction is stopped, heat will continue to be generated for days – enough to melt the reactor core if it is not cooled. In normal operation, all this heat is useful – it is used to boil water, which makes steam that is then used to drive electricity-generating turbines.

The problem is that you cannot simply turn off an atomic reactor instantly. It takes days for the red-hot fuel rods to cool down – and that is provided they are supplied with adequate coolant.

Professor Richard Wakeford, a nuclear expert at Manchester University, said yesterday: ‘If the fuel is not covered by cooling water it could become so hot it begins to melt – if all the fuel is uncovered you could get a large-scale meltdown.’

Hopefully this will not happen, and thanks to both the design of the Japanese reactors and to the swift and organised response of the authorities, handing out iodine pills to prevent the ingestion of cancer-causing substances, there is little chance that Fukushima will enter the annals of notoriety alongside Chernobyl.

One possibility which can be discounted is the so-called ‘China Syndrome’, the wholly fictitious idea that a molten reactor core could melt its way through the Earth and emerge on the other side. It is now known that even a total meltdown, although deadly, would soon be contained and cool down naturally. But already questions are being asked – about Japan’s nuclear safety record, and what implications this has outside Japan.

Was it wrong to build a series of atomic reactors so close to the ocean? Experts suggest that given the whole country is an earthquake zone, there is nowhere the plant could be built which would not be at risk.

Unlike Chernobyl, there is no chance that this could become an international incident; Japan is simply too far away from anywhere else for the radiation to spread, and the most serious radioactive contaminant – Iodine-131 – has a half-life of just eight days. Furthermore, the Japanese government is rich, competent and open – which the Soviet authorities in 1986 conspicuously were not.


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1365781/Japan-earthquake-tsunami-Second-explosion-rips-nuclear-plant.html


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PostitusPostitatud: 14 Mär, 2011 21:44 
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Issand halasta, kõigist saadaolevatest materjalidest võtad sa Daily Maili?


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PostitusPostitatud: 14 Mär, 2011 21:47 
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TTA kirjutas:
Issand halasta, kõigist saadaolevatest materjalidest võtad sa Daily Maili?


Olen lugenud ja kuulanud palju palju selleteemalisi artikleid ja uudistenuppe- seni üks paremaid lihtsaid ülevaateid asjast. Sa ikka linki klikkasid ja sealt lõpust neid 3 Mile Island üllatavaid fakte 1986 Ukrainas toimunud katastrofi kohta ja teadlasega tehtud vidoeusutlust vaatasid????


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PostitusPostitatud: 14 Mär, 2011 22:13 
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Liitunud: 07 Sept, 2010 7:51
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Tiam kirjutas:
TTA kirjutas:
Issand halasta, kõigist saadaolevatest materjalidest võtad sa Daily Maili?


Olen lugenud ja kuulanud palju palju selleteemalisi artikleid ja uudistenuppe- seni üks paremaid lihtsaid ülevaateid asjast. Sa ikka linki klikkasid ja sealt lõpust neid 3 Mile Island üllatavaid fakte 1986 Ukrainas toimunud katastrofi kohta ja teadlasega tehtud vidoeusutlust vaatasid????


Daily Maili kõrval on meie oma SL Õudusleht nagu vagur teadusajakiri. Lasin kiirelt pilguga üle ja nad suudavad isegi omaenda artiklis vastukäivat juttu ajada.


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PostitusPostitatud: 14 Mär, 2011 23:01 
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ma arvan...et kui seal midagi hullemat on, siis sellest ei räägita....paanika ei annaks midagi juurde ja lihtsalt selleks pole vaja infot väljastada, et heaoluühiskonnas elamuste järgi ahhetavad oma doosi kätte saaks.


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Satelliidipildid enne ja pärast tsunamit

BBC vahendab:
#
2001: A senior nuclear industry executive has told the New York Times that Japanese nuclear power industry managers are "basically in a full-scale panic". The executive is not involved in managing the response to the reactors' difficulties but has many contacts in Japan. "They're in total disarray, they don't know what to do," the executive added.


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PostitusPostitatud: 15 Mär, 2011 0:04 
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Päris hea analüüsiga artikkel tuumajaamas toimunu kohta: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/03/14 ... _analysis/

Põhimõtteliselt suutis tuumajaam vastu pidada 5x ettenähtust tugevamale maavärinale, kusjuures ainult üks inimene sai kergelt kiiritatud.


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PostitusPostitatud: 15 Mär, 2011 1:15 
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Siit peaks saama üsnagi operatiivset teavet olukorra kohta: http://english.kyodonews.jp/news/

Minu arvates ei ole hetkel aga kõige parem aeg igasugusteks analüüsideks ja eksperdihinnanguteks, eriti kui need põhinevad kaheldava väärtusega informatsioonil. Ei näe ju keegi reaktori sisse, igasugused välismaised eksperdid teavad sellest veelgi vähem kui jaapanlased ise.


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PostitusPostitatud: 15 Mär, 2011 2:37 
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Lives viimased teated järgmistelt organisatsioonidelt twitteri kaudu:

nternational Atomic Energy Agency (@iaeaorg)
Geoff Brumfiel, one of our colleagues at Nature (@gbrumfiel)
The Business News Network (BNNLive)
The Japan Times (@japantimes)
U.S. Geological Survey (@USGS)
American Red Cross (@RedCross)

Peaks ka TTA jaoks piisavalt autoriteetne allikas olema.


Viimati muutis Tiam, 15 Mär, 2011 3:35, muudetud 1 kord kokku.

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Päris korralik ülevaade neist ohtudest, mida isegi väike kogus radiatsiooni kaasa võib tuua. Tundub, et see Tšernobõli 1986 õnnetuse "näiline ohutus" on siiski sellest kategooriast väikesed valed, suured valed ja see statistika.


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PostitusPostitatud: 15 Mär, 2011 3:18 
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Halvad uudised jätkuvad. Plahvatust oli kuulda teise reaktori juures. Ja kardetakse, et seekord on asi tõsisem kui eelmiste plahvatuste puhul. Töötajad evakueeriti. Esialgsed mõõtmised õnneks siiski eriliselt kõrgenenud radiatsioonitaset ei ole näidanud.

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Viimane seis, selles osas, millised süsteemid täpselt igas üksikus reaktoris töötavad ja millised mitte. Jaapani aatomienergia agentuurist siis.

Sateliidipildid kannatada saanud tuumajaamast.

2 reaktori kütusevardad ka merevee sisse pumpamisest hoolimata veest väljas.

Esimesed uudised selle kohta, et see tuum sulab seal ning on läbi sulatamas reaktorit ümbritsevat saastevastast teraskapslit


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Huvitav on jälgida Delfi arvamusartiklites toimuvat "tuumahüsteeriat".

Paaniline kisa "tuumajaam on paha paha, Eesti alatud poliitikud valetavad, miljonirahvas hävib koos tuumajaamaga" jne.

Mõttetu, enamik "asjatundjaid" pole suvatsenud isegi wikipedia tasemel asjade seisu endale selgeks teha, vaid tõmmatakse seismilise püssirohutünni Jaapani ja 9/11-ga meelevaldselt paralleele. :rip:

Eriline paniköör ja demagoog on muidugi Estam.

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Kapten Trumm kirjutas:
Huvitav on jälgida Delfi arvamusartiklites toimuvat "tuumahüsteeriat".

Paaniline kisa "tuumajaam on paha paha, Eesti alatud poliitikud valetavad, miljonirahvas hävib koos tuumajaamaga" jne.

Mõttetu, enamik "asjatundjaid" pole suvatsenud isegi wikipedia tasemel asjade seisu endale selgeks teha, vaid tõmmatakse seismilise püssirohutünni Jaapani ja 9/11-ga meelevaldselt paralleele. :rip:

Eriline paniköör ja demagoog on muidugi Estam.


Väga tore, et sa ise oled oma basic researchi siis nii korralikult ära teinud, et võid 1000% kindlusega teisi kohe lollideks hakata tembeldama. Ei ege kõrge enesehinnang on tänases maailmas ainult kasuks. Unustame ära, et neid Jaapani lekkivaid tuumajaamu opereerinud firma juht pidi tagasi astuma 2a tagasi, sest nende konkreetsete tuumajaamade ohutustõendid-raportid olid võltsitud. Seega oli seal jamasid ka ennem kui maa värises.

Ennem kui senistel tuumajäätmetel töötavad kiiretel neutronitel põhinevad vedela Na jahtutatud reaktorid ei ole veel levinud (pane google otsingusse Toshiba 4S fast neutron reactor) mina Eestisse tuumajaama rajamist ei poolda.

Seni aga olen kahe käega poolt tuumaenergia vabalt turult sisseostmisele või leedukatega ühes koos Ignalinasse uue tuumajaama rajamisse- neil on seal infra olemas ning suurem tuumajaam tuleks el. energia omahinnalt odavam.

Tsiteeri:
Lie #4: Nobody ever died due to nuclear power, except in the Chernobyl accident.

An example of the lie:

"No member of the American public has ever been killed by commercial nuclear power — a record unmatched by other fuels," wrote Alexander, a Tennessee Republican, along with Theodore Rockwell, a fellow of the American Nuclear Society and a vice president of Radiation, Science and Health Inc.

Considering the history of incidents like Three Mile Island and the deadly Chernobyl disaster in the Ukraine, we decided to take a closer look at the history of commercial nuclear power plants, and see if, in fact, no one has ever been killed by commercial nuclear power in the United States.

In order to help narrow our search, we decided not to count a death from a workplace hazard, for example slipping and falling. We're specifically looking at the workers in plants who are killed from the process of creating nuclear power.

Alexander's staff told us the senator got his facts from the American Nuclear Society Web site, which states in a "Myths and Facts" section that "No member of the public has ever been injured or killed in the entire 50-year history of commercial nuclear power in the U.S."

We confirmed that with David Decker, congressional analyst for the government's Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the federal agency in charge of nuclear plants.

"I believe that the senator's statement was that there have been no deaths due to nuclear-related accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. From our perspective, this would be true," Decker said. (Link)

Another example of the lie:

Apart from Chernobyl, no nuclear workers or members of the public have ever died as a result of exposure to radiation due to a commercial nuclear reactor incident. Most of the serious radiological injuries and deaths that occur each year (2-4 deaths and many more exposures above regulatory limits) are the result of large uncontrolled radiation sources, such as abandoned medical or industrial equipment. (There have also been a number of accidents in experimental reactors and in one military plutonium-producing pile - at Windscale, UK, in 1957, but none of these resulted in loss of life outside the actual plant, or long-term environmental contamination.)(Link)

This is simply not true. People who live closer to a nuclear power plant have a higher risk of leukemia. From GlobalResearch:

Leukemia death rates in U.S. children near nuclear reactors rose sharply (vs. the national trend) in the past two decades, according to a recent study. The greatest mortality increases occurred near the oldest nuclear plants, while declines were observed near plants that closed permanently in the 1980s and 1990s. The study was published in the most recent issue of the European Journal of Cancer Care.

Seventeen studies done on leukemia rates near nuclear reactors have found an increase in leukemia rates:

The Mangano/Sherman report follows a 2007 meta-analysis also published in the European Journal of Cancer Care by researchers from the Medical University of South Carolina. That report reviewed 17 medical journal articles on child leukemia rates near reactors, and found that all 17 detected elevated rates.

Infant mortality rates near nuclear power plants become higher when they are opened, and remain elevated:

In the United States, utility companies have recently begun ordering new nuclear power reactors, the first such orders in the country since 1978. One potential site would be the Grand Gulf plant near Port Gibson, Mississippi. In 1983-1984, the first two years in which the existing Grand Gulf reactor operated, significant increases were observed in local rates of infant deaths (+35.3%) and fetal deaths (+57.8%). Local infant mortality remained elevated for the next two decades. These changes match those experienced in the same five local counties during atomic bomb testing in the 1950s and 1960s. This report examines potential reasons why an indigent, largely African American community may be at higher risk than other populations from exposure to an environmental toxin such as radiation. It also considers potential health risks posed by new reactors at Grand Gulf.(Link)

Infant mortality rates decline when nuclear plants close in areas in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants when the power plants close, however, they do not decline in areas outside of the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the decline in birth defects was especially strong:

Subsequent to 1987, 8 U.S. nuclear plants located at least 113 km from other reactors ceased operations. Strontium-90 levels in local milk declined sharply after closings, as did deaths among infants who had lived downwind and within 64 km of each plant. These reductions occurred during the first 2 yr that followed closing of the plants, were sustained for at least 6 yr, and were especially pronounced for birth defects. Trends in infant deaths in proximate areas not downwind, and more than 64 km from the closed plants, were not different from the national patterns. In proximate areas for which data were available, cancer incidence in children younger than 5 yr of age fell significantly after the shutdowns. Changes in health following nuclear reactor closings may help elucidate the relationship between low-dose radiation exposure and disease.

A significant childhood cancer cluster was found near a nuclear plant in Germany too:

Between February 1990 and December 1995, professionals diagnosed six cases of childhood leukemia among residents of the small rural community of Elbmarsch in northern Germany. Five of these cases were diagnosed in only a 16-mo period between February 1990 and May 1991. All cases lived in close proximity (i.e., 500-4,500 m) to Germany's largest capacity nuclear boiling-water reactor. We calculated standardized incidence ratios and exact 95% confidence intervals for a 5-km-radius circular area around the plant. The standardized incidence ratio for the time period 1990-1995 was 460 (95% confidence interval: 210, 1,030). The analysis was restricted further to the years 1990 and 1991, and the standardized incidence ratio increased to 1,180 (95% confidence interval: 490, 2,830). Presently, this cluster of childhood leukemia cases cannot be explained in terms of established and putative risk factors--including radiation from medical sources--for childhood leukemia.(Link)

In other words, we can establish that people living near nuclear power plants have an increased risk of having children that will die due to leukemia or birth defects. Of course something has to happen to the nuclear waste as well. Unfortunately, people living near the nuclear waste reprocessing plants have an increased risk of Leukemia too:

The observed number of cases of leukaemia in the study region as a whole was consistent with the expected value (SIR=1.03; 95%CI: 0.73, 1.41). No cases were observed on Alderney. The SIR in the Beaumont-Hague electoral ward was 2.17 (95%CI: 0.71, 5.07). The highest SIR was observed in the 5 to 9 years age group (SIR=6.38; 95%CI: 1.32, 18.65). This consists in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases.

This study indicates an increased incidence of leukaemia in the area situated at less than 10 km from the plant. Monitoring and further investigations should be targeted at acute lymphoblastic leukaemia occurring during the childhood incidence peak (before 10 years) in children living near the La Hague site and may be other nuclear reprocessing plants.(Link)

People living near nuclear waste dumps have a higher risk of cancer:

It emerged on Thursday that the number of leukaemia cases in the area surrounding the Asse dump had risen. Between 2002 and 2009, there were 18 cases of leukaemia – cancer of the blood or bone marrow – according to figures confirmed by Wolfenbüttel district authorities.
Men in the area have twice the rate of leukaemia cases as the rest of Germany. Among women, there was a tripling of the rate of thyroid cancer between 2002 and 2009.(Link)

In the general area of Three Mile Island, an increase in infant mortality happened after the disaster there.(Link) People living near the uranium mines suffer from an increase in cancer and birth defects as well.



Lie #5: Nuclear energy is a cost efficient method of energy generation

In reality, the Nuclear industry keeps lying to us about the price of nuclear energy. For example, the Congressional Budget Office reported in May 2008 that the actual costs of building 75 of the existing nuclear power plants in the U.S. exceeded industry quoted estimated by more than 300 percent.(link)

After Fifty years, nuclear energy is still dependent on government subsidies. More than 30 subsidies have supported every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to long-term waste storage. Added together, these subsidies often have exceeded the average market price of the power produced.(link)

The only reason such a thing as nuclear energy exists is because the governments of the world keep it alive through subsidies.


Lie #6: An event like happened in Chernobyl can never happen again.

Examples of the lie:

In a US reactor a coolant loss automatically shuts down the reactor’s chain reaction and automatically limits the consequences of the accident. There is no graphite or other combustible material in the reactor, so there is nothing to catch fire. The severe consequences of Chernobyl were mainly a result of the smoke distributing the radioactive material. This cannot happen without smoke, and with nothing to burn there cannot be smoke.(Link)

BrianDunning, author of a science podcast Skeptoid, explains: “Fukushima nuclear plant does NOT have a combustible graphite core like Chernobyl. A total meltdown should flow into underground containment.(Link)

Chernobyl had a graphite moderated core that caught fire spreading radioactivity as a result of the fire. Fukushima has a water moderated and cooled core. There would be no fire. The core might be damaged, but even if water levels within the vessel fell below the top of active fuel, significant steam cooling would still occur.(Link)

The fact of the matter is, that this is just not true. It can still happen. The mechanism may differ, but the amount of radioactive pollution released can still be similar.

First of all the story that the graphite was responsible for the spread of the radiation is unsubstantiated. To continue on with nuclear power something had to take the fall and it seems it was decided by some to blame the graphite in the core that exists as a neutron moderator.

The fact of the matter however is that the Graphite in Chernobyl does not appear to have been responsible for the disaster at all. From the General Atomics website:

It is often incorrectly assumed that the combustion behavior of graphite is similar to that of charcoal and coal. Numerous tests and calculations have shown that it is virtually impossible to burn high-purity, nuclear-grade graphites. Graphite has been heated to white-hot temperatures (~1650°C) without incurring ignition or self-sustained combustion. After removing the heat source, the graphite cooled to room temperature. Unlike nuclear-grade graphite, charcoal and coal burn at rapid rates because:

* They contain high levels of impurities that catalyze the reaction.
* They are very porous, which provides a large internal surface area, resulting in more homogeneous oxidation.
* They generate volatile gases (e.g. methane), which react exothermically to increase temperatures.
* They form a porous ash, which allows oxygen to pass through, but reduces heat losses by conduction and radiation.
* They have lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than graphite.

In fact, because graphite is so resistant to oxidation, it has been identified as a fire extinguishing material for highly reactive metals.

The oxidation resistance and heat capacity of graphite serves to mitigate, not exacerbate, the radiological consequences of a hypothetical severe accident that allowed air into the reactor vessel. Similar conclusions were reached after detailed assessments of the Chernobyl event; graphite played little or no role in the progression or consequences of the accident. The red glow observed during the Chernobyl accident was the expected color of luminescence for graphite at 700°C and not a large-scale graphite fire, as some have incorrectly assumed.(Source)

And from world-nuclear:

There are also several referrals to a graphite fire occurring during the October 1957 accident at Windscale Pile No. 1 in the UK. However, images obtained from inside the Pile several decades after the accident showed that the graphite was relatively undamaged.(Source)

Thus we can so far establish the following. Nuclear propagandists need an excuse to be able to claim that Chernobyl could never happen again in modern reactors. For this they need a design element of the Chernobyl reactor to take the blame, and they choose the neutron moderator used in the reactor, graphite. They claim that the supposed graphite fires spread the radiation. Evidence points to this not being the case.

But let us not stop here. Let us look at some expert opinions. An Israeli professor has the following to say about the disaster at the light water reactor in Japan:

Hebrew University Professor Menachem Luria, an expert on air quality and poisoning, told Channel 2 on Saturday: "This is very worrying. There is no doubt that we have not seen anything like this in years, perhaps ever since nuclear experiments were conducted in the atmosphere in the 1950s. From what we can gather, this disaster is even more dangerous than Chernobyl, both from the standpoint of the population's exposure to radioactive material and the spread of radioactive contamination in the area."

Luria continued: "Once there is an uncontrollable heating up, the nuclear fuel undergoes a metamorphosis into the gaseous phase. Since we are talking about metals and solid items, they turn into particles that are capable of traveling great distances. They can wander thousands of kilometers."

If these gases are indeed emitted into the atmosphere in large quantities, the wind regime could carry them all the way to China, South Korea, and eastern Russia, or in the other direction, toward Hawaii and the west coast of the United States. The likelihood of this happening, though, is not high.(link)

A theoretical physicist has the following to say about the Fukushima disaster currently unfolding:

A theoretical physicist today calls the Japan reactor explosion a "Chernobyl in the making."

Speaking to ABC News, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku said, "This could be a Chernobyl in the making. We are now going into uncharted territory, we are thinking the unthinkable."

These inflamatory statements came after hydrogen released from the super-hot nuclear rods ignited, creating an explosion at the plant that was disabled after the 8.9 earthquake and tsunami.(Link)

Further evidence by US experts indicates that Chernobyl scale events are still possible. In testimony before Congress in 1986, NRC Commissioner James Asselstine stated the following:

While we hope that their occurrence is unlikely, there are accident sequences for U.S. plants that can lead to rupture or bypassing of containment in U.S. reactors which would result in the off-site release of fission products comparable or worse than the releases estimated by the NRC staff to have taken place during the Chernobyl accident.(Link)

A report mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1982 concluded that events can still happen at all US nuclear power plants that will lead to thousands of direct deaths in the first year and thousand of cancer deaths later. The authors also concluded that changing some of the criteria for data gathering would actually increase the number of early fatalities by a factor of 3 to 4 depending upon circumstances.(Link) Anyone who tries to convince you that Chernobyl was an incident that could never be repeated is lying to you.


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PostitusPostitatud: 15 Mär, 2011 18:09 
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Liitunud: 31 Aug, 2008 4:25
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Following reports that all major banks have pulled their employees out of Tokyo overnight, finally broad evacuations are starting to spread to the ordinary citizens, starting with China. AP reports that: "China became the first government to organize a mass evacuation of its citizens from Japan's northeast on Tuesday, while other foreigners left the country following radiation leaks at an earthquake-damaged nuclear power plant. Austria said it is moving its embassy from Tokyo to Osaka, 250 miles (400 kilometers) away, due to radiation concerns. France recommended that its citizens leave the Japanese capital, while the U.S. government advised Americans to avoid travel to Japan." And while the Chinese concern for its citizens is admirable, what is peculiar is the complete silence as to how China, which is very much downwind from Fukushima, is handling the fears of its own local citizens regarding spreading radiation.

More:

China's announcement came as Japan's nuclear crisis took a dramatic turn for the worse following an explosion and a fire at reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi complex. Japanese authorities said the fire caused radiation to spew into the air and told people living nearby to stay indoors.

The Chinese Embassy in Tokyo said on its website that it was preparing to send buses to remove its nationals from Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki and Iwate prefectures, the hardest-hit provinces.

The embassy said the evacuation was necessary "due to the seriousness of and uncertainty surrounding the accident at the Fukushima nuclear plant at present."

Chinese diplomats were visiting the area to assist Japanese officials, said a Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman, Jiang Yu, in Beijing. She gave no other details of the operation.

The number of Chinese affected is unclear, but the Ministry of Commerce in Beijing said it had contacted 22,155 Chinese nationals in the quake-hit areas, while another 261 could not be reached. Many Chinese work in factories in Japan, and the area around Fukushima is home to numerous small manufacturers.

China Southern Airlines said it will use larger, 272-seat aircraft on the route between Tokyo and the Chinese city of Shenyang to handle the evacuees, the official Xinhua News Agency said.


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