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 Teema pealkiri: Peipsi järve flotillid
PostitusPostitatud: 15 Dets, 2004 14:24 
Eemal
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Liitunud: 16 Dets, 2003 20:25
Postitusi: 926
Heia!

Taas sattus netiavarustes üks huvitav jutt ette. Asi oli postitatud miskises Norras asuvas foorumis kuhu sattusin hoopis teist teemat taga otsides. Kuna aga jutt tundus huvitav ning põhjalik, siis ei saanud kuidagi kiusatusele vastu panna asi ka siia urgu ära sikutada.

Seega - teemaks Peipsi järve flotillid ja laevad, alates I M-s ning lõpetades II M-s. Tekst ise inglise keelne, aga loodetavasti ei panda seda pahaks. Liiga pikk teine, et ära tõlkida :oops:

Tsiteeri:
Author: Erik Linnasmägi (---.kj.estpak.ee)
Date: 10-13-02 14:24

The lake in question is the fourth largest in Europe. Its Estonian name is Peipsi järv. The German variant Peipus-See is a slight corruption of the Estonian form; I have seen "Lake Peipus" used also in the English texts. Russians call it Chudskoye ozero; from "Chud" - the arhaic Russian word meaning Finno-Ugric peoples, especially Estonians. The lake system includes, besides Peipsi itself, also the Pihka järv/ Pleskau-See/ Pskovskoye ozero in the south, and between the two major lakes a small and shallow part called Lämmijärv. Lake Peipus lies on the border between Estonia and Russia and so divides the possible movement directions of the armies in two, the Peterburg-Narva-Tallinn direction in the north and Pskov-Petseri-Tartu direction in the south. At the warmer season, control over the lakes means control over the large part of Estonian eastern border. From November to April the lakes are covered with ice and dozens of Russian invasions to Estonia have been during the last 1,000 years over the frozen lakes. From the south, river Velikaya flows from the city of Pskov to the lakes; from west, river Emajõgi goes from the city of Tartu; in the north Narva aka Narova river flows towards Narva city.

In XX century the naval flotilla on Peipus was created first by Imperial Russia in 1915 (hard to understand for what - the German forces reached Western Estonian islands only at 1917 and the mainland Estonia at 1918). The flotilla had mobilized and armed civilian vessels. During the revulutionary years 1917-1918 the ships changed their flags from Red to Imperial several times.

At November 1918 began Estonian War of Independence. Some ships fell into Estonian hands when Estonian Army liberated Tartu from Red Army, January 1919. From them was formed Lake Peipus Fleet Division, that went to the lakes at April. Some ships came themselves and surrendered to Estonians. In May 1919 Estonian troops captured the base of Red flotilla in Raskopell and then all vessels of significance on the lakes belonged to them. The strength in May was 5 gunboats, 10 auxiliary vessels and 5 motorboats. At 26 May the Division took part in the capture of Pskov by the Estonian Army. Till August the vessels made mostly transport and supply trips, as there were no more enemy forces in the region. In August, when Red Army was advancing at the areas to the east from Lake Peipus, many refugees were evacuated from the east. Since August till November, when the ice ended the navigational season, the Division almost daily attacked Red targets in the east with artillery fire and small landing parties, destroying the Soviet coastal defences.

By the Tartu peace treaty of 1920, both Estonia and Soviet Russia could have on the lakes 2 armed ships, with no more than 2 artillery pieces with max 47mm calibre and no more than 2 MGs. So, most Estonian vessels went to civilian users - except gunboats Tartu and Ahti that had reduced armament of 2 x 47 plus 2 x AA MG. The civilian-used vessels had a reserve role. On mobilization, both active and reserve ships were supposed to be armed with 75mm or 102 mm guns, + AA MGs.

After the occupation of Estonia by Red Army, the ships were of course taken over. In February 1941 they were given to Training Division of the Dziersinski Higher Naval Engineers School in Leningrad. This formation was used first time in action at 24 June 1941, supposedly against Estonian Forest Brothers guerillas (with no result as there probably weren't any guerillas in the attacked area). After that it took part in numerous razzias and arrests of Estonian citizens in the same month.

At 30 June or 3 July the formation was renamed Lake Peipus Flotilla. It had 427 men and 39 vessels of various kinds. The nucleus were 4 formerly Estonian gunboats. The Russians had not found the guns from Estonian Navy time and new 45mm and 76mm guns were installed on the ships. The Flotilla evacuated Soviet Army troops and in some cases even opened fire on German columns at the eastern side of the lake. Some ships were attacked by German aircraft and had personnel losses, no aircraft were shot down. In July-August the ships were sunken by Russians themselves. At 20. August the flotilla commander reached (over land) Leningrad, with either 142 or 189 men, the rest had been lost.

The "small war" on the lakes was not limited to official naval formations. Estonian irregulars (Omakaitse/Self-Defence of the lakeside communes) made on boats raids against Russian irregulars (partisans) on the eastern side of the border, at 9 and 14 September.

The German Feldwasserstrassen-Abt 4 (HQ in Pskov) had at 1943 18 "Dampfer und Schlepper" and 39 "Kähne" on Lake Peipus and transported at the same year 114.850 persons. Besides these, it had ships and tasks in other areas too. Most or perhaps all sunken vessels were raised.

In Spring 1944, the Germans moved the 4th Artillery Carrier Flotilla of Kriegsmarine to Peipus in early 1944. Strength: "24 Artillerie-Leichtern, 30 Verkehrs-, 4 Küstenmotor- 4 Kommandobooten und einem bewaffneten Dampfer." German Army (Heer) had at the same time the Feldwasser-Abt 4 of "12 Dampfern, 10 Schleppern, und 7 Kähnen" and Pi.Landungs-Btl. 772 with "18 Siebelfähren, 12 Landungsbooten und 27 Sturmbooten". An Estonian book about the Border Defence Regiments (of Estonian men, mobilized by Germans) shows a photo of a German landing barge with a Flak gun on top, used for transport of Estonian troopers to islands on Lake Pskov.

A Soviet book tells about "the Peipus fleet of the fascists, where there were over 100 vessels" - allegedly 40 of these were disabled by a ground attack aircraft division of Red Banner Baltic Fleet. A German author tells that "4 Artillerie-Leichter, 2 Zollkampfboote und 7 kleinere Boote der Kriegsmarine" had been in Tartu at August 1944. Actually, some of the Kriegsmarine personnel in naval uniforms were among the last defenders of Tartu and fell there.

The Soviets formed at May 1944 on Lake Peipus the 25th Separate Brigade of River Ships, sometimes also called again the Peipus Flotilla. It had armoured gunboats and "landing tenders", one gunboat allegedly destroyed a German boat by ramming at 13 June. During the Soviet assault on Tartu the brigade landed 2 divisions on the western side. By Soviet sources, it transported during the Tallinn operation (Sept 1944) over the lakes "more than 100 thousands of soldiers and officers, more than 1 thousand artillery pieces, up to 4 thousand motor vessels and many other supplies of the 2nd Shock Army."

Some of the sources:
Aleksander Varma, "Merevägi vabadussõjas", Tallinn 1926
Hamilkar Mengel, "Suurim armastus. Esimene Piirikaitse Rügement lahingutules", Geislingen 1960
Werner Haupt, "Heeresgruppe Nord 1941-1945", Bad Nauheim 1966
Ants Künnapuu, "Teedel õhuavarustesse", Tallinn 1979
"Boyevoi put Sovetskovo Voyenno-Morskovo Flota", Moscow 1988
"Dvazdy Krasnoznamyennyi Baltiiski Flot", Moscow 1990
Mati Õun, "Võitlused Läänemerel. Suvi 1941", Tallinn 1996
Herbert Lindmäe, "Suvesõda Tartumaal 1941", Tartu 1999


Viimati muutis nublu, 15 Dets, 2004 14:27, muudetud 1 kord kokku.

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PostitusPostitatud: 15 Dets, 2004 14:25 
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Liitunud: 16 Dets, 2003 20:25
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Ja siin siis veel lühidalt flotilli laevade saatused...

Tsiteeri:
Author: Erik Linnasmägi (---.kj.estpak.ee)
Date: 10-13-02 14:45

There have probably never been any torpedo-carrying vessels on Lake Peipus. These "S-Boote" should really be "Kanonenboote", although "Bewaffnete Dampfern" is a descriptive enough.

These must have been the former Estonian Navy Lake Peipus Fleet Division gunboats (except Taara that was not operable when seized by Soviets).

Gunboat Vanemuine
175 t, 36.1x6.3x1.9 m, 300 hp, 9 kn.
Armament 2x75mm + 2 MG. Crew 4/26 at wartime.
Built 1914 in Warkaus, used as Imperator by Livonian Steamship Company.
Mobilized at 1915.
Captured by Estonian Army in Tartu (frozen on Emajõgi river), 14 Jan 1919. Renamed Vanemuine, flagship of the Peipus Fleet Division.
After the end of War of Independence handed over to Ministry of Trade and Industry. After the end of War of Independence handed over to Ministry of Trade and Industry. Used as a passenger ship, belonged to the reserve of Peipus Fleet Division.
Taken over by Soviets 1940/1941, renamed Issa. At July 1941, floated to a coast near Rannapungerja.
Salvaged later. At Sept 1944, sunken by Soviet Air Force at Rannapungerja.
Raised and scrapped after WWII.

Gunboat Ahti
140 t, 28.6x4.9x1.8 m, 200 hp, 9 kn.
Armament at various periods 2x57mm/2x75mm/1x47mm+1x37mm guns, + 2 MG, + 60 "fish" mines. Crew 3/25 at wartime, 2/17 at peacetime. The photos show that Ahti had armour when in Estonian service.
Built 1908 in Riga and used as Hansa by Livonian Steamship Company.
Mobilized in 1915, renamed Olga.
Captured by Estonian Navy in Raskopell, 20 May 1919. Renamed Ahti.
Taken over by Soviets 1940/1941, renamed Embach. Sunken by her crew at Rannapungerja, July 1940. Raised and used again. Sunken by crew again, August 1941 (either in Alajõe or Remniku).
Raised again soon, renamed Baltenland, used by Wasserstrassen-Abteilung 4. At 26 Aug 1944, sunken by Soviet Air Force at Emajõgi river. Later raised and scrapped.

Gunboat Tartu
145t, 37.9x5.3x1.2m, 120 hp, 9 kn.
Armament at 1919 1x57mm, 1x 47mm, 1 x 40mm.
Crew 3/25 at wartime.
Built 1908 in Riga and used as Jurjev and used by Russian Ministry of Communications.
Mobilized in 1915.
Captured at 1918 by Germans, renamed Graf Kirchbach, sold to private owner. Taken over by Estonian Navy at March 1919, renamed Tartu. Used by Peipus Fleet Division until 1940.
Taken over by Soviets 1940/1941, renamed Narova. Hit by German aircraft bomb at 22 July 1941. Sunken by her crew at the mouth of Omedo river.
Raised again soon, renamed Heimatland, used by Germans as acommodation ship. At Aug 1944, sunken by Soviet Air Force. Later raised and scrapped.

Gunboat Uku
110 t, 20.5x5.2x1.6 m, 100-120 hp, 9-10 kn.
Armament at various periods 2x47mm/ 1x76mm + 1-2 MG. Crew 3/25 at wartime, 2/17 at peacetime.
Built 1912 in Warkaus, used as Delphin by Livonian Steamship Company.
Mobilized at 1915.
Captured by Estonian Army in Tartu (frozen on Emajõgi river), 14 Jan 1919. Renamed Uku.
After the end of War of Independence handed over to Ministry of Trade and Industry.
Taken over by Soviets 1940/1941, given to Peipus Lake and River Shipping Company. Later to Soviet Navy. Sunken by her crew at Mustvee, July 1940.
Raised again soon, used by Waterways Department of the Estonian Administration (Eesti Omavalitsus/Estnische Selbstverwaltung). At Sept 1944, sunken in Tartu Harbour, probably by her crew. Later raised. Used as a passenger ship, renamed Turist. At 1982 sunken at shallow water. Raised at 1991. At late 1990s belonged to a private owner and probably still does.

Gunboat Ilmatar
230 t, 36.8x6.5x1.65 m, 200 hp, 9 kn.
2x75mm. Crew 3/22 at wartime.
Built 1957 at Narva river, rebuilt1868, named Sofia.
Mobilized during WWI.
Sunken by crew at 20 May 1919, when Estonian Navy attacked Raskopell. Raised by Russian Whites, taken to Tartu, renamed Ilmatar at 1920. Used by Estonian Ministry of Trade and Industry, belonged to the reserve of Peipus Fleet Division.
Taken over by Soviets 1940/1941, renamed Plyussa. Sunken by her crew at Rannapungerja, July 1940.
Raised again soon. At Aug 1944, sunken by Soviet Air Force. Raised at 1946, renamed Sofia again, taken to Pskov. Scrapped at mid-1950s.

Gunboat Taara
160 t, 37x6x1.5 m, 250 hp, 10 kn.
Armament 3x75mm guns. Crew 3/22-29 at wartime.
Built 1913 in Warkaus, used as Tsesarevitsh Aleksei by Gromov, Abramov & Co.
Mobilized during WWI. At 1917 renamed Respublikanets, then Narodnik.
Captured by Estonian Army in Tartu (frozen on Emajõgi river), 14 Jan 1919. Renamed Taara.
After the end of War of Independence handed over to Ministry of Trade and Industry, later to private owner.
At 1940 on coast, not used by Soviet or German navies. Scrapped at late 1940s.

Besides the gunboats, the Estonian Peipus Division had various times had numerous other vessels, such as patrol ships, coastal patrol boats, transports, icebreaking tugs etc. Among these, there were the small armoured gunboats Kõu and Maru. Don't know at what years, obviously should be before 1920. During WWI, the shipyards in Tallinn produced for Imperial Russian Navy destroyers, submarines, cruisers (the latter not finished) and also armoured gunboats that were predecessors of the WWII "bronekatera". Probably Kõu and Maru belonged to such boats too.

There have been bizarre machines on the lake. During the War of Indepndence some soldiers used on Peipus ice-skating sailboats for patrolling (at Spring 1919). IIRC at 1930s Estonian Border Guards had a propeller-driven ice sledge and now they have a hovercraft (http://www.pv.ee/leht/PLnr4.pdf). The local coastal people build snowmobiles with huge pneumatic tyres from ordinary cars. But never any torpedo boats there. ;-)


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PostitusPostitatud: 28 Dets, 2004 19:29 
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Liitunud: 30 Apr, 2004 20:49
Postitusi: 747
Asukoht: 58°22'N 26°43'E
noh, "gunboat Uku" vrakki võib Emajõe suursoos imetleda. pilt laeva jäänustest on sattunud ka Sõnnikulehe veergudele: http://www.sloleht.ee/index.aspx?id=108069
Pilt


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PostitusPostitatud: 28 Dets, 2004 19:45 
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Liitunud: 10 Juun, 2004 16:02
Postitusi: 985
Asukoht: Tartu või Sinimäe
pildil olev vrakk pole küll "uku" . ta on nimelt
Praagal :cry: kuid olukorrd on jah umbes sama .


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